Map of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and part of Virginia

Map (1732)

In 1632, Charles I granted to Cecil Calvert, the 2nd Baron Baltimore, all land between the Potomac River and what became Philadelphia. Two years later the first settlers arrived to establish St. Mary's City. Although Maryland was envisioned as a refuge for Catholics, the majority of immigrants were Protestants, which led to decades of religious and political strife between the communities, including a Civil War in the 1650s and armed conflict in 1688. After the Glorious Revolution, Maryland became a royal colony but was restored to the Calverts when the 4th Baron Baltimore became a protestant. Maryland, Pennsylvania, and the Northern Neck of Virginia would be the only proprietaries that remained so until 1776.

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